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Heavy Menstrual Bleeding – The Cause, Symptoms, Complication And Treatment

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Agamoni Das

HEAVY MENSTRUAL BLEEDING: MENORRHAGIA

An abnormally heavy bleeding during menstruation is called Menorrhagia. It’s actually a menstrual period with excessively heavy flow and falls under the larger category of abnormal uterine bleeding. And this can be caused due to a number of reasons. Well, whatever the reason is, the main thing is that it’s horrible. Yes, heavy bleeding is actually horrible for a woman. It can destroy your whole day, can make you feel poor and sick as well. Now, let’s find out the reasons behind Menorrhagia and the complications you may suffer from and what the treatment is.

CAUSES OF MENORRHAGIA

The initial evaluation aims at figuring out pregnancy status, menopausal status and the source of bleeding. The other reasons could be as follows –

NORMAL MENSTRUATION

In this case the ovaries produce egg regularly that is the period is regular. And it’s actually normal. The woman has normal ovaries, uterus and hormonal levels. And as everything is normal the menstruation occurs normally, sometimes with heavy bleeding.

DYSFUNCTIONAL UTERINE BLEEDING

It is the stage during the occurrence of menstruation or at the time of menopause. During this phase the endometrial is sensitive to prostaglandins and it dilates the blood vessels of the uterus and this can lead to heavy bleeding.

MALIGNANT CELLS IN THE UTERUS

If there is a presence of malignant cells in the uterus or in the mouth of the womb, then there is chance of heavy bleeding.

GROWTH OF TISSUES WITHIN UTERUS

Growth of tissues within uterus is the most common cause of Menorrhagia. The tissues are usually non-cancerous and can be of two types. One is uterine fibroids which grow in the muscle layer of uterus. Another one is polyps which grow in the inner wall of the uterus.

HORMONAL IMBALANCES

Hormonal imbalance can make you suffer from heavy bleeding. An underactive thyroid or inactive ovulation could be a reason of Menorrhagia.

MEDICAL CONDITIONS

Such conditions occur due to the deficiency of blood clotting agent. After a certain period of bleeding, if there is a lack of clotting enzyme or agent, then the situation turns out to be excessive bleeding.

MEDICAL DISORDER

There may be medical problems in the heart, kidney, liver or thyroid and these all can lead to Menorrhagia.

Medicines

There are some medicines which can affect the blood clotting. Warfarin, Aspirin or cancer chemotherapy drugs, these can lead to disturbed clotting and heavy bleeding.

SYMPTOMS OF MENORRHAGIA

1. The lower abdominal pain and pelvic pain is constant.
2. Heavy menstrual bleeding can saturate your pad less than the time it usually takes. You need to change your pad more frequently.
3. The flow is usually heavy at the night. And you have to wake up to change your pad.
4. The menstrual period is extended. Sometime it takes nearly two weeks.
5. A double sanitary protection is required.
6. There is pain and cramps. Also you start feeling sick.
7. There is also tiredness and may be shortness of breath.

COMPLICATION

As Menorrhagia is defined as heavy bleeding, sometimes this ends up to be Anaemia, severe Anaemia. And the woman starts suffering from iron deficiency, low haemoglobin level. She actually starts getting physical problems.

TREATMENT

1. Supplementation of iron to fight Anaemia.
2. Tranexamic acid or Lysteda at the time of bleeding to reduce the blood loss.
3. Oral contraceptive to reduce the bleeding.
4. Non steroidal anti-inflammatory drugs to reduce blood loss.
5. Oral progesterone to fight with hormonal imbalance.